今天安颖老师要和同学们分享一下中学英语阅读理解一个较难把握的题型,找出段落主题句或为文章选择合适的标题,这类题往往非常容易犯错,即便是学霸,也经常因为文章看的太明白,反而掉进了错误答案的坑。同学们一定有疑问,为什么文章看懂了反而选错了呢,原因在于没有掌握解答这类题型的技巧。学霸们通常选择了他们认为最全面最客观的答案(因为文章看的太明白),可恰恰选文章标题这类题要求的是概括总结性,而且有一定的解题技巧,同学们并没有掌握。下面安颖老师就已一篇文章为例,具体为大家解释如何选择文章标题或段落主题句。
A woman in the US is able to speak for the first time in 11 years after a pioneering voice box transplant .
Brenda Jensen said the operation was a great success which had saved her life.Thirteen days after the surgery she said her first words: “Good morning, I want to go home.”It is the first time a voice box and windpipe have been transplanted at the same time and only the second time a voice box has ever been transplanted.
Ms.Jensen, 52, had been unable to speak on her own since her voice box was damaged during surgery in 1999.Since then, she has been unable to taste or smell food, could breathe only through a hole in her windpipe and could talk only with the help of an electronic voice box.
In October, surgeons at the University of California Davis Medical Centre removed the voice box and 6cm of the windpipe from a donor body.In an 18-hour operation, this was transplanted into Ms.Jensen’s throat and the team connected it to her blood supply and nerves.
Professor Martin from University College London, who was part of the surgery team, said: “We’ve learned that we can repair nerves to make even very complex organs function again.teacheray.com It’ll open the door to better facial transplants and will be extremely important as tissue engineering develops.”
A voice box transplant might be life changing, but it is not life saving.Everyone who receives a transplant must take drugs to control the immune system (免疫系统) for the rest of their lives. These drugs can reduce life expectancy, so they are normally set aside for life saving procedures.
One of the reasons Ms.Jensen was a suitable person for this transplant was that she was already taking immune controlling drugs after a kidney-pancreas transplant four years ago.Professor Peter , part of the surgical team, said: ” Brenda was an exceptional candidate for the transplant because she was highly motivated.Anyone who’s met Brenda knows that she is a strong and determined person with a great outlook on life in spite of the many physical challenges she’s faced over her lifetime.
Which is the best title for the passage?
A.Transplant Saves A Woman’s Life B.Overcoming Obstacles to Speak Again
C.First Words from New Voice Box D.Courageous Woman Defeating Fears
这是一篇高考模拟题的阅读理解,其实初中高中在选择文章标题这类题型上的解题技巧是一致的,之所以选择这篇文章,是因为它恰到好处的反应了我们今天要阐述的解题技巧。这篇文章大多数同学选择的B或D作为文章的标题,理由是首先这两个答案表述没有错误,而且照顾到了文章后半部分表达出的对文章主人公精神的赞美,比较全面。而答案A则属于错误表达,文章中明确提出A voice box transplant might be life changing, but it is not life saving。故A是不可取的。那么答案C很多同学认为表达过于片面,不能完全体现文章后半部分所阐述的内容。其实正确答案恰恰是C。就是因为学霸们后面的文章看懂了,所以选择了一个自认为照顾到文章全局的标题。也恰恰因为没有掌握这个重要的解题技巧,学霸们顺利掉进了出题者设计的坑里。

阅读理解的技巧中非常重要的一点是在阅读中迅速地抓住文章或段落的中心思想。
而段落或文章的中心思想往往是通过段落中的主题句来体现的。因此了解并掌握这些规律,迅速找出主题句,从而抓住中心思想对于提高同学们的阅读理解水平大有益处。
1.首句是主题句的规律
文章首句是主题句通常出现在有例证、解释或说明的段落;为某一事物下定义的段落;对两个或以上的事物作比较的段落以及表明因果(往往结果交代在前)的段落。
主题句是首句的段落一般以概述开篇,再辅之以细说。而文章的题目也一般出现在开头或段首,据专门研究阅读技巧的专家统计,主题句或标题出现在文章开头的概率达到70%。甚至有些设题者为了迎合这一规律,通过修改文章把主题句或标题隐含词穿插在段首。而在选择标题或主题句时,通常是段落中某些词的整合或原文同义替换词的总结。上面那个例子之所以选C,首先它符合标题一般出现在文章段首的规律,其次段首出现了speak for the first time after a pioneering voice box这些与答案C First Words from New Voice Box意思相同的表达。
2.段落尾句是主题句的规律
段尾有主题句的情况一般出现在作者要阐述一个不常见或令人难以接受的观点的段落,旨在说服读者相信其观点。尾句是主题句的段落总是用归纳法撰写的,先表述细节或论据,最后作出概括性的结论,以总结性的句子收尾。这种段尾主题句的情况相对段首主题句要少很多。
综上所述,同学们在解主题大意题时,可以参考以下几点:
1)认真阅读文章的第一段和每段的第一句。
2)涉及到文章的主题时,作者往往有意识地反复论述。那么文中就会出现复现的中心词,抓住中心词,对我们把握主题有一定帮助。
3)文章或段落的主题句通常会出现在一些标志性的提示词后:
例如:On the whole, in short, in a word, in brief, to sum up, to conclude ,therefore…
掌握了找主题句的方法后,就可以依据主题句归纳主题。但归纳主题容易出现以下三种错误,需要同学们格外注意:
(1)以偏概全,只抓住了文章主题的一个侧面就误以为是真正的主题。
(2)过于笼统,归纳的主题太泛泛,与文中事实细节严重脱节。
(3)把自己的观点强加给作者,有些同学往往根据自己的经验常识对文章进行判断从而忽视了作者的观点,这是阅读大忌。

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