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When

(1)做当……时候讲时,既可以和瞬间动词连用,也可以和延续性动词连用,与主句所述动作既可以同时发生,也可以先后发生,如:
When I met the Gills, I had been gardening for nearly ten years.
遇到吉尔一家时我已经做了近10年的园艺工作。
(2)when当这时讲时,常用于固定句型:
be doing\be about to do 立即,马上
be on the point to do…….when…… 某人刚要/正要做……这时……, 如:
I was walking along the street when suddenly someone patted me on the shoulder from behind.
我正在街上走,这时突然有人从后面拍打我的肩膀。

(3)when当既然讲时,引导状语从句. 如
Why do some rich people steal things when they could easily afford to buy them?
既然他们很容易买得起这些东西,为什么富人还要偷呢?

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While

(1)做当……时候讲时,用于同时进行的两个延续性动词相伴随而发生
They were grinning and watching while one man laughed and poured beer over the head of another… teacheray.com
当一个男人大笑着把啤酒倒在另一个人头上时,他们都在乐呵呵地看着。

(2)while当然而讲,表示两个动作进行对比,如
All of us are working hard while he is sleeping.
我们都在努力工作,然而他在睡觉。

(3)while当尽管讲,如
While the numbers of such developments are relatively small, the potential market is large.
尽管目前发展是有限的,但潜在的市场很大。

as

引导时间状语从句时,强调两个持续性动作同时发生,一般译为随着;一边……一边……
He hurried home, looking behind as he went.
他匆忙回家,一边走一边往后看。

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