初中英语知识点总结|初中英语重要知识点

 

        同学们好,今天安颖老师为同学们整理了初中英语重要知识点大全,这些知识点选自《初中英语自诊断》这本书的附录部分,对同学们非常有帮助。同学们课下要根据自身情况进行查漏补缺,注意总结归纳。

 

初中英语知识点总结之50个基本句型翻译(基础知识必考)

中考英语完成句子版块

初中英语基本句型翻译(50个)

1. It’s time to go home./ play computer games./ for school.(It’s time to do/for sth)
是回家/玩电子游戏/上学的时候了。

2.It’s bad for you to spit on the ground. 随地吐痰不好。(It’s bad for sb to do sth.)
Smoking is bad for your health. 抽烟不利于你的健康。
Too many sweets are bad for your teeth. 吃过多的糖对你的牙齿有害。

3. It took me half an hour to fall asleep last night.
昨天夜里我花了半个小时才入睡。(It takes sb. sometime to do sth.)

4. You’d better put away all your clothes./go over your homework again.
你最好把你的衣服收好/再检查一遍你的作业。(You’d better do sth.)
You’d better not go until your aunt arrives. 你最好等你的姨妈到了以后再走。

5.What’s wrong with the animal?这动物怎么啦?(what’s wrong with)

6. Before the operation he used to have a headache. (used to do)
在未动手术之前,他以前经常头痛。
I used to go hiking when I was young. 我年轻时经常外出徒步旅行。

7.I’d like to go there on foot. / by bus. (would like to do)
我愿意步行/坐公共汽车到那儿去。
Would you like him to make a phone call to you? 您愿意他打电话给您么?

8. I can’t wait to pack my bag. (can’t wait to do)
我等不及打我的包了。

初中英语知识点总结

9. Let’s hurry so that we can get there before supper. (so that目的是,以便于)
让我们抓紧时间,这样才能在晚饭前赶到那里。
My father lives so far away that we hardly see him. (so+adj\adv+that如此…以至于)
我父亲住在很远的地方,以至于我们难得见到他。

10. The harder you work, the higher marks you’ll get.
(the+adj.比较级,the+adj.比较级 越来越…….)
你学习越努力,你的成绩就越好。

11.Don’t be late for the concert.
去听音乐会可别迟到了。(be late for)

12. It’s said that he gets on well with others.
据说他和别人相处的很好。(get on well with sb.)

13. He enjoys reading in bed. (enjoy doing)
他躺在床上津津有味地看书。
She kept on working although she was tired. (keep on doing)
她虽然累了,但仍然继续工作。
They are busy getting ready for the party. (be busy doing)
他们正忙着为聚会作准备。

14. He often tells me not to play a joke on the old people. (tell sb. to do)
他经常告戒我不要和老年人开玩笑。
Miss Gao told me not to be late for class.
高老师告诉我上课别迟到。

15. I saw the man pull a gun out of his pocket.(see sb. do\doing)
我看见那人从口袋里掏出了一把枪.
When we were walking across the bridge, we saw a boy fall into the river.
当我们过桥的时候,我们看见一个男孩儿掉进河里。
I heard someone shout “ Fire!” and then I heard people running and shouting.
我听到有人高喊“着火啦!”,接着我又听到人们在边跑边喊。(hear sb. do\doing)

16. They made us play football in the rain.
他们让我们冒雨踢足球。(make sb. do)

17. The girl is too young to get married. (too…to…)
这姑娘还太年幼,还不能结婚。
The hotel is too expensive for us to stay in.
这宾馆收费太贵了,我们可住不起。

18. He is not only a writer but also an actor. (not only…but also…)
他不但是一位作家,还是一位演员。

19. I prefer trains to buses. (prefer sth. to sth.)
我喜欢火车,不喜欢公共汽车。
He prefers traveling by train to sitting in a bus. (prefer doing to doing)
他喜欢坐火车旅行,而不喜欢坐公共汽车旅行。

20.Both he and his father do morning exercises every day. (both…and…)
他和他父亲每天都做早操。

21.Neither she nor I failed the history exam.( neither…nor…)
她和我历史考试都没有不及格。

22. He will come back either this Sunday or Saturday. (either…or…)
他将于星期日或星期六回来。

23. The TV play didn’t start until ten o’clock last night. (not…..until)

昨天夜里电视剧十点钟才开始。

24.I’m afraid of flying. (be afraid of doing)
我害怕乘坐飞机。
He feels afraid to tell his wife what he has done. (be afraid to do)
他不敢把自己做的事告诉妻子。

25.I don’t think the meeting room can hold two hundred people. (think的否定转移)
我想这间会议室容纳不下二百人。

26. Stop making that noise.别这么吵闹。(stop doing\to do)
We stopped (walking) to have lunch in a village pub.
我们停下来在一家乡村小酒馆吃午饭.

初中英语知识点总结

27.It’s dangerous (for you) to drive so fast. (It’s +adj.+for\of sb to do)
(你)车开得这么快是危险的。
It’s impossible for him to work out this maths problem.
他解出这道数学题是不可能的。
I found it impossible to work out this maths problem. (find it+adj.+to do)
我发现他解出这道数学题是不可能的。

28. He showed me his new suit. / He showed his new suit to me.
他向我展示他的新服装。(两种方法) (show sb. sth. / show sth. to sb. )
She bought a dress for me. She bought me a new dress.
她给我买了一件连衣裙。(buy sb. sth./buy sth. for sb.)

29. She spent a lot of money on clothes. (spend time/money on sth.)
她花很多钱买衣服。
She spent a lot of time (in) surfing. (spend time/money in doing )
她花很多时间玩冲浪。
He paid $10 for the book.(pay for sth.)
The book cost him $10.(sth. cost sb.some money)
他花了10美元买这本书。(两种方法)

30. What do you mean by “baozi”?( what do you mean…)
“baozi”是什么意思?

31. What/How about having a rest? /(having) a try? (What/How about + doing)
休息一会儿/尝试一下怎么样?

32. Why not make friends with him? (Why not do)(why don’t you do)
何不跟他交个朋友?

33. It’s better to make up your mind. (It’s better\best to do)
你最好下定决心。
It’s best to wear silk clothes in summer.
在夏季最好穿丝绸衣服。

34. The river is 50 kilometres long and two metres deep.
这条河有50公里长两米深。

35. Your cake is as delicious as mine.(as…as…)
你的蛋糕和我的蛋糕一样好吃。
He doesn’t run so / as fast as you.
他不如我跑得快。

36. He often helps me with my Chinese. (help sb. with sth.)
他经常帮助我学习语文(或中文)。
He often helps me do the homework. (help sb. do sth.)
他经常帮助我做家庭作业。

初中英语知识点总结

37. What do you think of the novel?( what do you think of/ how do you like)
How do you like the novel?
你认为这本小说怎么样?(两种方法)

38. He likes cooking very much. So do I. / So does he.(so+倒装语序)
他非常喜欢做饭。我也一样。/他也一样。
He is American. So is Jim.
他是美国人。吉姆也是。

39.Don’t forget to post the letter on your way home.
别忘了在你回家的路上把这封信寄了。(forget\ remember to do\doing)
Did you remember to send your mother a birthday card last week?
上星期你没有忘记给你母亲寄生日卡吧?
I’ll never forget seeing the girl for the first time.
我将终生难忘初次见到那位姑娘的情景。

40. Forests help tokeep water from running away. (keep\stop\prevent from doing)
森林有助于防止水分流失。
The Great Green Wall will stop the sand from moving towards the rich farmland.
绿色长城将阻挡沙子侵蚀肥沃的农田。

41. I prefer to do shopping on the Internet rather than go to the shop.
比起去商店购物,我更喜欢网上购物。(prefer to do rather than do)

42. He has nothing to do with the club. (have nothing to do with)
他和那家俱乐部没有关系。

43. Tom made such a noise that his sister told him to be quiet.(such…that…)
汤姆太吵闹了以至他姐姐叫他安静点。
His idea was such a good one that we all agreed to use it.
他的想法是如此的好以至我们一致同意采纳它。

44. We are proud of what you’ve done. (be proud of)
我们为你所做的感到骄傲。
We are proud of our city.
我们为我们的城市感到自豪。

45. Beijing is famous for its many places of interest in the world.( be famous for)
北京因为众多名胜古迹而闻名世界。

初中英语知识点总结

46.The students are getting ready for the coming sports meeting.
学生们正在为即将到来的运动会做准备。(be/ get ready for ,be prepare for)

47.There is something wrong with my bicycle .can you help me with it?
我的自行车出了问题,你能帮我修理吗?( there is something wrong with)

48.I’ll call you as soon as I arrive in shanghai。( as soon as)
我一到上海就给你打电话。

49.She is good at dancing。(be good at ,do well in)
她擅长跳舞.

50.They are interested in animals。( be interested in)
他们对动物感兴趣。

初中英语知识点总结之名词复数形式及词类变化规律

名词复数形式及词类变化规律

一、可数名词单数变复数类
1.规则变化:
(1)一般情况加-s, 如: girls, books, pens, bags, boys, days等。
(2)以s, x, ch, sh结尾加-es, 如: buses, boxes, watches, brushes等
(3)以o结尾的名词,无生命的名词多加-s,有生命的名词多加-es。
如photos,zoos,potatoes,tomatoes等
(4)以辅音字母加y结尾的名词, 变y为i加-es,
如: cities, stories
(5)以f或fe结尾的名词变f或fe为v加-es。
如: leaves, knives, shelves,wives等。
2.不规则变化的名词要熟记:
Man-men, woman-women, child-children, foot-feet,tooth-teeth, mouse-mice, people-people, sheep-sheep, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese,deer-deer , man worker-men workers ,woman doctor-women doctors

初中英语知识点总结

二、动词/名词变形容词类
1.在动词后加后缀-ful
如:care-careful ,use-useful;
thank-thankful,help-helpful;
wonder-wonderful,forget-forgetful
2.在名词后加-y
如:luck-lucky, cloud-cloudy;
wind-windy, rain-rainy;
sun-sunny, snow-snowy
noise-noisy,health-healthy
3.在名词后加-ly
如:friend-friendly,love-lovely
4.方位名词加-ern
如:east-eastern,west-western
south-southern,north-northern

三、形容词加后缀变成名词
1.形容词加-ty变成名词
如:safe-safety,difficult-difficulty
2.形容词加-th变成名词
如:true-truth,warm-warmth,young-youth

四、形容词变副词类
1. 一般形容词词尾加-ly变成副词,
如:slow-slowly,  clear-clearly
quick-quickly, quiet-quietly
careful-carefully, sudden-suddenly
real-really, polite-politely
safe-safely, wide-widely
2. 以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,要变y为i加-ly
如:easy-easily, happy-happily
heavy-heavily, lucky-luckily
busy-busily, angry-angrily;
3. 以元音字母加e结尾,去e加-ly
如:true-truly
4. 以辅音字母加-le结尾,去e加-y
如:terrible-terribly possible-possibly
5. 形容词与副词同形
如:fast-fast,early-early,high-high,hard-hard
注意:hard作形容词时意思是“困难的;硬的;生硬的”等;作副词时意思是“努力地”。hardly是否定副词,意思是“几乎不”。

初中英语知识点总结

五、动词变名词类
1.动词加-er变成名词
如:work-worker farm-farmer teach-teacher
sing-singer speak-speaker play-player
read-reader drive-driver write-writer
ride-rider dance-dancer run-runner
win-winner  cook-cooker travel-traveler
2.动词加-or 变成名词
如:visit-visitor,invent-inventor,conduct-conductor,act-actor

六、基数词变序数词类:
主要掌握好1—12和20、30、40、50、60、70、80、90及21、22、23这几个序数词的形式:
one-first twenty-twentieth
two- second thirty -thirtieth
three-third forty -fortieth
four- fourth fifty -fiftieth
five – fifth sixty -sixtieth
six- sixth seventy -seventieth
seven- seventh eighty -eightieth
eight-eighth ninety -ninetieth
nine-ninth ten- tenth
eleven-eleventh twelve-twelfth
twenty-one ~twenty-first twenty-two ~twenty-second
twenty-three ~twenty-third

初中英语知识点总结

初中英语知识点总结之不规则动词表

不规则动词表

不规则动词表

 

现在式 过去式 过去分词
am, is was been
are were been
babysit babysat babysat
become became become
bend bent bent
begin began begun
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burnt

burned

burnt

burned

buy bought bought
can could
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
dig dug dug
do, does did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
freeze froze frozen
forgive forgave forgiven
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
has, have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
leap leapt

leaped

leapt

leaped

learn learnt

learned

learnt

learned

leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit

lighted

lit

lighted

lose lost lost
make made made
may might
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
read read read
retell retold retold
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shall should
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
sing sang sung
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
smell smelt smelt
speak spoke spoken
spell spelt spelt
spend spent spent
spread spread spread
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
tread trod trod / trodden
understand understood understood
upset upset upset
wake woke

waked

woken

waked

wear wore worn
will would
win won won
write wrote written

初中英语知识点总结

初中英语知识点总结之形容词副词的不规则变化

形容词&副词 比较级,最高级不规则表

原形 比较级 最高级
good, well better best
ill, bad, badly worse worst
little less least
old older

elder

oldest

eldest

many, much more most
far farther

further

farthest (表距离)

furthest (表程度)

late later

latter

latest (用于时间)

last (用于顺序)

初中英语知识点总结

初中英语知识点总结之情景交际用语

情景交际英语

1. 问候:
(1)A:Good morning/afternoon/evening.
Hello/Hi.
How do you do ?
Nice to meet you.
B:回答相同
(2)A:How are you?
B:Fine, thank you. And you?
Very well,thank you.

2. 介绍:
This is Mr/Mrs/Miss…
I’d like you to meet my parents.
My name is….I’m a student.

3. 告别
A:Goodbye.
See you later/tomorrow.
Good night.
B:回答相同

4. 感谢和应答表示感谢通常回答
Thank you very much. Not at all.
Thanks a lot. That’s OK.
Many thanks. That’s all right.
Thanks for helping me. You’re welcome.

5. 祝愿、祝贺和应答
(1)A:Good luck!
Best wishes to you.
Have a nice/good time/journey.
Congratulations!
B:Thank you.
(2)A:Happy New Year!
Merry Christmas!
B:The same to you.
(3) A:Happy birthday to you.
B:Thank you.

6. 道歉和应答
A:I’m sorry.
I’m sorry to trouble you.
B:It doesn’t matter.
It’s not important.
That’s nothing.

7. 遗憾和同情
What a pity!
I’m sorry to hear that.

8. 邀请和应答
A:Would you like to … ?
B:Yes, I’d love to.

9. 提供帮助和应答
A:Can I help you?=What can I do for you?
Here, take this/my bike.
Let me do it for you.
B:Thanks for your help.
Yes, please.
No, thanks.
That’s very kind of you.

10. 请求允许
(1)A:May I…? Can I/Could I…?
B:Yes/Certainly/Of course.
Yes, do please.
OK/All right.
(2)A:Do you mind if I open the window?
B: No, not at all.
Never mind.

初中英语知识点总结

11. 表示同意和不同意
(1):Certainly/Sure/Of course.
Yes, please.
Yes, I think so.
All right/OK.
That’s a good idea.
I agree with you.
(2):No, I don’t think so.
I’m afraid not.
I really can’t agree with you.

12. 表示肯定和不肯定
(1): I’m sure.
I’m sure that…
(2): I’m not sure.
I’m not sure whether/if…
Maybe…

13. 喜欢和厌恶
(1): I like /love…(very much)
I like /love to…
(2): I don’t like to…
I hate to …

14. 问时间、日期的应答
A:What day is it?
B:It’sMonday.
A:What’s the date?
B:It’s Jan. 10th.
A:What’s the time,please?
B:It’s five o’clock/half past five… It’s time to …

15.请求
(1): Can/could you…for me?
Will/would you please do sth.?
May I have…?
(2): Please give/pass me…
Please wait (here/a moment).
Please wait for your turn.
Please stand in line.
(3): No smoking, please.
No noise, please.

16.劝告和建议
(1):You’d better…
You should…
You need to…
(2):Shall we do sth. ?
Let’s do sth. .
What/How about doing sth. ?
OK. Good idea.

17.禁止和警告
(1):You mustn’t play on the road.
If you … you’ll …
(2):Take care.
Be careful.

18.表示感情
A:喜悦
Great!That’s nice.
I’m glad/pleased/happy to…
B:焦虑
What’s wrong?
What’s the matter with you?
I’m/He’s/She’s worried.
Oh, what shall I do?
C:惊奇
Really?
Oh, dear!Is that so?

19.约会
A:Are you free this afternoon?
What/How about tomorrow morning?
Shall we meet at 4:30 at the school gate?
B:Yes, that’s all right.
Yes, I’ll be free then.
All right.See you then.

20.语言困难
Pardon?
Please say that more slowly again.
What do you mean by…?
I’m sorry I know only a little English.

初中英语知识点总结

21.表示称赞:
A:Oh, how nice! Your dress is beautiful.
B:It’s nice of you to say so. 或Thank you.

22.打电话:
A:Hello!May I speak to Tom?
Hello!I’d like to speak to Mr.Green.
Is that Liu Ying speaking?
Can I leave a message?
I’ll call back later.
I’ll ring him/her up again.
B: Hello!This is Mary speaking.
Hello!Who is that?
Hold on the line,please.
Just a moment,please.
Hello!Who’s speaking?
Sorry.He/She isn’t here right now.
Can I take a message?
Sorry,I can’t hear you.
The line is busy.
I couldn’t get through.
Sorry, I’m afraid you have the wrong number.

23.就餐:
A:Would you like something to eat/drink?
What would you like(to have)?
Would you like some more fish?
Help yourself to some fish.
B:(1)Yes,I’d like a drink.
I’d like rice and chicken.
Just a little,please.
Can I have some more soup?
It’s so delicious.Thank you.
I like green tea.
(2)No,thank you.I’ve had enough.
I am full.Thank you.

24.就医:
A:What’s the matter?
Do you have a fever?
How long have you felt like this?
It’s nothing serious.
Take this medicine three times a day.
You’ll be all right soon.
B: I have a headache.
I feel terrible.
I don’t feel well.
It hurts here.
I can’t sleep well.

25.购物:
A:Can I help you?
What can I do for you?
How many/much would you like?
What color/size/kind would you like?
What about this one?
Here’s your change.
B: I want/I’d like a pair of shoes.
How much is it/are they?
May I try it on?
It’s too big/small.
Sorry,it’s too expensive.
Do you have any other colors/sizes/kinds?
Two and a half kilos/pounds,please.
That’s fine.I’ll take it.
Just have a look.
Well, I’ll think about it.

26.问路:
A:Excuse me,where’s the washroom?
Can you tell me how to get to the post office?
Excuse me,which bus goes to the World Park?
Excuse me,which is the way to the Bank of China?
Excuse me,could you tell me the way to the station,please?
How can I get to NO.4 Middle School?
B:(1)It’s over there.
It’s about 400 meters from here.
Go down this street until you see the tall red building.
Turn right/left at the first/second crossing/corner.
You can’t miss it.
You can take bus NO.4.
You’d better take a taxi.
(2)Sorry.I don’t know.I’m a stranger here.

27.谈论天气:
A:What’s the weather like today?
How is the weather in Beijing?
What a cold/hot day today!
It’s a fine/nice day today.
B:It’s sunny/cloudy/windy/rainy.
It’s getting cool/cold/warm/hot.

28.意愿和打算:
I’ll go with you.
I’m going to see my head teacher this afternoon.
I’d like to make a phone call to her after class.
I want/hope to find an English pen-friend.
I plan to go to Hangzhou this summer.
I won’t see the movie again.
I’m not going to buy the book.
I don’t want to live in the big city.

29.形状:
A:What does it look like?
What’s the shape of the clouds?
B: It’s look like a camel.
It’s round/long/tall/short.
It’s a circle/square.

30.材料:
A:What’s the table made of?
What’s the red wine made from?
B: It’s made of wood.
It’s made from grapes.
I bought a silk skirt yesterday.

初中英语知识点总结

初中英语知识点总结之构词法

构词法

 

词根
1. car(车)
carry(运送) carrier(搬运工)

2. cent(百)
century(世纪) percent(百分之…)

3. duc, duct(引导)
conduct(指导) produce(制造,制作)

4. fact, fect(做)
fact(事实) effect(效果) affect(影响)

5. form(形式,模式)
inform(通知) information(信息)

6. gragh, gram(写)
photogragh(照片) telegram(电报)

7. lect(收集,选择)
elect(选举) select(挑选) collect(收集)

8. mini, min(小,不重要的)
miniskirt(迷你裙) minority(少数)

9. port(搬运)
port(港口) export(出口) import(进口)

10. quest, quir, quis(探询)
question(问题) inquire(询问) request(请求)

11. sta, stat, stand(站,安置)
station(站台) install(安装)

12. alter, altern, altr (变更)
alternate (改变)

13. bio, bi, bion (生物,生命)
biology(生物) bionics(仿生学)

14. mand, mend (命令)
command(命令,指挥) demand(要求) recommend(推荐)

15. sens, sent(感觉,情感)
sensation(感觉,感动) sentiment(多愁善感的)

16. tend, tes, tent(倾向,伸张)
tendency(倾向,趋势) intension(强度,紧张) extend(延伸,扩大) extent(长度,范围)

17. vid, vis, vey, view(观看,看见)
television(电视) visible(可见的) evident(证据) interview(采访) survey(调查)

初中英语知识点总结
前缀
1. co-表示共,全,合等,变化有col-,com-,con-,cor-
companion(伙伴), cooperation(合作), conversation(对话), compare(比较)

2. de-表示离,下降,不,减
decrease(下降), defend(防守), delay(耽误)

3. dis-表示相反,否定
disagree(不同意), dislike(不喜欢), disappointment(失望)

4. ex-表示向外,超过
except(除…以外), exit(出口), exclude(排外), export(出口), expand(扩大)

5. ex-表示先,故,旧
ex-husband(前夫)

6. fore- 表示在前面
forehead (前额), forecast(预测,预报)

7. in-,im-,ig-,ir-表示无,非,未
inexpensive(廉价的), impossible(不可能), impolite(不礼貌), irregular(不规则)

8. in-,im-表示向内,进
input(输入), inside(在里面), include(包括), import(进口)

9. auto-表示自己,独立,自动
automobile (汽车), automatic(自动的)

10. inter- 表示相互
international(国际的), interaction(相互作用), internet(互联网),interview(采访)

11. multi-表示许多,复,多数
multiple(多重的;倍数), multicultural(多种文化的)

12. micro-表示微
microscope (显微镜), micro-wave oven(微波炉)

13. pre-表示先前,预先
prepare(准备), preview(预习)

14. re-表示离开;再一次,重复
remove(移开), resign(辞去), retire(退休),review(复习),reunion(重聚)

15. sub-表示分支,低于
subway(地铁), subject(科目)

16. trans- 表示转移,转变
transform(转变,转化),transport(运输),transplant(移植)

17. un- 表示无,不
unlike(不像), unfair(不公平), unable(不能),unusual(不寻常)

初中英语知识点总结
后缀
1. -able 表示能…的,可…的
acceptable(可接受的), reasonable(合理的)

2. -ed 表示有…的
colored(彩色的), married(已婚的), learned(有学问的)

3. -en 表示由…制成,可构成动词
wooden(木制的), golden(金制的), deepen(使加深),sharpen(使变尖)

4. -ful 表示充满…的
helpful(有帮助的), careful(仔细的),hopeful(有希望的)

5. -fy 表示使…化,使成
beautify (美化), simplify (简化), clarify(澄清,使明了)

6. -ical 表示有…性质的,关于…的
medical(医学的), musical(音乐的), historical(历史上的)

7. -ism 表示制度,主义,学说,信仰,行为,行业
socialism(社会主义), criticism(批判主义), capitalism(资本主义), heroism(英雄主义), tourism(旅游业)

8. -ise,-ize 表示做成,变成,使…化
modernize(现代化), mechanize(使机械化)

9. -less 表示无,不
careless(不细心的), harmless(无害的), useless(无用的),wireless(无线的)

10. -ment 表示…的结果,行为
development(发展), improvement(提高)

11. -ship 表示情况,性质,技巧,技能及身份,职业
hardship(困苦,苦难), membership(会员), friendship(友谊),scholarship(奖学金)

初中英语知识点总结

12. 具有某种职业或动作的人
1)-an, -ain, 表示”……地方的人,精通……的人”
American(美国人), historian(历史学家)

2)-ee, 表示”动作承受者”
employee(员工,被雇佣者), examinee(应试者)

3)-eer, 表示”从事于……人”
engineer(工程师), volunteer(志愿者)

4)-er, 表示”从事某种职业,某地区,地方的人”
banker(银行家,银行业者), observer(观察者), worker(工人)

5)-ese, 表示” ……国人,…..地方的人”
Japanese(日本人), Cantonese(广东人)

6)-ess, 表示”阴性人称名词
actress(女演员), hostess(女主人)

7)-ian, 表示”……地方人,信仰…….教的人,从事……职业的人”
Christian(基督徒), physician(内科医生),musician(音乐家)

8)-ist, 表示”从事……研究者,信仰……主义者”
pianist(钢琴家), communist(共产主义者), dentist(牙医), artist(艺术家)

9)-logist, 表示”……学家,研究者”
biologist(生物学家), geologist(地质学家)

10)-or, 表示”……者”
author(学者), doctor(医生), visitor(参观者)

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